SOCIAL WELL-BEING, PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING DAN EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING: STUDI KAUSAL KOMPARATIF PADA PRAKTISI SENI BELA DIRI BIMA DAN KEBUGARAN FISIK
Individual health promotion includes preventative and curative measures. In the holistic model of public health, the promotion of mental health is an effort that complements the bio-medical approach. Various activities can affect the promotion of mental health is to exercise regularly physical exercise or actively involved in martial arts activities. The positive impacts of joining health clubs as well as martial arts groups to mental health such as increased self-esteem, self-confidence, and subjective well-being have been summarized by many researchers. However, inconsistent results regarding the impact of following the martial arts against the psychological condition of individuals are also found. Some researchers have found that involvement in martial arts increases anti-social attitudes and involvement in violent acts. This study attempts to reveal the phenomenon by conducting a comparative causal study ex post facto on health-care participants in health clubs and BIMA martial arts participants. From the research results obtained the findings that participants BIMA martial arts and sports participants in health clubs have emotional, psychological and social well-being is high. However, only the social well-being participants of the BIMA martial art (M = 4,969, SD = .691) were higher than the club's fitness participants (M = 4.55 3, SD = 1.054); t (58), p = .009.
Keywords: martial arts, psychological well-being, emotional well-being, social well-being.
Arent, S.M., Landers, D.M., Etnier, J.L. (2000). The effects of exercise on mood in older adults: a meta-analytic review. Journal Aging Physical Act. 8, 407–430
Back, A., & Kim, D. (1979). Towards a Western philosophy of the Eastern martial arts. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 5, 19-28.
Barton, J., & Pretty, J. (2010). What is the best dose of nature and green exercise for improving mental health? A multi-study analysis, environmental science and technology. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(10), 3947–3955.
Binder, B. (2007). Psychosocial Benefits of the Martial Arts: Myth or Reality? International Ryuku Karate Research Society`s Journal. A literature review. Diunduh dari www.researchgate.net/publication/265567929.
Brudnak, M., Dundero, D., & Van Hecke, F. (2002). Are the ‘hard’ martial arts, such as the Korean martial art, TaeKwon-Do, of benefit to senior citizens? Medical Hypotheses, 59(4), 485–491.
Caldwell, K., Harrison, M., Adams, M., Quin, R.H., & Greeson, J. (2010). Developing mindfulness in college students through movement based courses: Effects on self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, stress, and sleep. Journal of American College Health, 58(5), 433-442. doi:10.1080/07448480903540481.
Caldwell, K., Emery, L., Harrison, M., and Greeson, J. (2011). Changes in mindfulness, well-being, and sleep quality in college students through taiji quan courses: A cohort control study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(10), 931-938. doi:10.1089/acm.2010.0645.
Cynarski, W. J., & Litwiniuk, A. (2006). The violence in boxing. Archives of Budo, 2, 1-10.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. E. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 276-302.
Donohue, J., & Taylor, K. (1994). The classification of the fighting arts. Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 3(4), 10-37.
Edwards, S. D. (2000). Exercise and mental health promotion- the natural partnership. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 2, 16- 18.
______ (2002). Promoting mental health through physical exercise. KwaDlangezwa: University of Zululand.
Edwards, S.D., Ngcobo, H. S.B., Edwards, D. J. & Palavar, K. (2005). Exploring the relationship between physical activity, psychological well- being and physical self- perception in different exercise groups. South African Journal for Research in sport, Physical education and Recreation, 27( I): 1-18.
Ekkekakis, P. (2003). Pleasure and displeasure from the body: Perspectives from exercise. Cognition & Emotion, 17(2), 213–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699930302292
Ekkekakis, P., Parfitt, G., & Petruzzello, S. J. (2011). The pleasure and displeasure people feel when they exercise at different intensities. Sports Medicine, 41(8), 641–671. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11590680000000000-00000
Finkenberg, M. E. (1990). Effect of participation in Taekwondo on college women’s self-concept. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71(3), 891-894.
Fong, S. S. M. (2014). Martial arts for health: Translating research into practice. Foster City, CA: OMICS Group eBooks.
Förster, A. (1986). The nature of martial arts and their change in the West. In S. Kleinman
(Ed.), Mind and body. East meets West (83-88). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hancock, C. (2011). Review: The benefits of physical activity for health and well-being. Diunduh dari http://www.c3health.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/C3-review-of-physical-activity-and-health-v-1-20110603.pdf
Hsu, A. (1986). Chinese Martial Arts. Bridging the Cultural Gap Between East and West. In S. Kleinman (Ed.), Mind and Body. East meets West (pp. 89-95). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Kahneman, D., Diener, E. & Schwarz, N (eds) (1999). Well-Being: The Foundation of Hedonic Psychology. In Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2006). Hedonia, Eudaimonia, and Well-being: An Introduction. Journal of Happiness Studies (2008) 9:1-11.
Keyes, C.L.M. (1998). Social Well-Being. Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 121-140
Keyes, C. L.M., Shmotkin, D. & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimising well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82: 1007-1022.
Kroll, W. and Carlson, B.R. (1967) Discriminant Function and Hierarchial Grouping Analysis of Karate Participants' Personality Profiles. Research Quarterly 38: 405-411.
Ku, P., McKenna, J., Fox, K.R. (2007). Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being and Effects of Physical Activity in Chinese Older Adults. Journal of Ageing and Physical Activity, 15 (4) October, pp.382-397.
Kurian, M., Caterino, L. C., & Kulhavy, R. W. (1993). Personality characteristics and duration of ATA Taekwondo training. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76(2), 363-366.
Lakes, K. D., & Hoyt, W. (2004). Promoting self-regulation through school-based martial arts training. Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 283-302.
Madden, M. E. (1990). Attributions of control and vulnerability at the beginning and end of a karate course. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 70, 787-794.
Martin, R. (2002). The physical and psychological benefits of martial artstraining for individuals with disabilities. Thesis. University of Wisconsin-Stout, Wisconsin. Diunduh dari http://www2.uwstout.edu/content/lib/thesis/2002/2002martinr.pdf
Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand.
McAuley, E., & Katula, J. (1998). Physical activity interventions in the elderly: Influence on physical health and psychological function. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 18, 111-154.
Netz Y, Wu, MJ, Becker, B.J., Tenenbaum, G. Physical activity and psychological well-being in advanced age: a meta-analysis of intervention studies. Psychol Aging. 2005 Jun; 20(2):272-84.
O’Connor, P. J., Aechenbacher, L. E., & Dishman, R. K. (1993). Physical activity and depression in the elderly. Journal of Physical Activity and Aging, 1, 34-58.
Penedo, F. J. & Dahn, J. R. (2005). Exercise and well-being: A review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(2), 189–193.
Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into force on 7 April 1948
Pyecha, J. (1970) Comparative Effects of Judo and Selected Physical Education Activities on Male University Freshman Personality Traits. Research Quarterly, 41, 425-431.
Rejeski, W. J., & Mihalko, S. L. (2001). Physical activity and quality of life in older adults. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Science and Medical Science, 56 Spec, 2(2), 23-35.
Robins, J. L. W., McCain, N. L., Gray, D. P., Elswick, R. K., Walter, J. M., & McDade, E. (2006). Research on psychoneuroimmunology: Tai chi as a stress management approach for individuals with HIV disease. Applied Nursing Research, 19, 2-9.
Rongen, A., Robroek, S.J.W., van Lenthe, F.J. and Burdorf, A. (2013) Workplace Health Promotion: A Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44, 406-415.
Ryan, R.M. & Deci, E.L. (2001). On Happiness and Human Potentials: A Review of Research on Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being. Annual Reviews Psychol. (2001). 52:141-66
Ryan, R. M., Huta, V., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 139-170.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological wellbeing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069-1081.
Ryff, C. D. & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well- being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719- 72 7.
Salmon, P. 2001. Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: A unifying theory. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(1), 33-61.
Stathi, A., Fox, K.R., & McKenna, J. (2002). Physical activity and dimensions of subjective well-being in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 10(1), 79-92.
Tan, K. S. Y. (2004). Constructing a martial tradition: Rethinking a popular history of karate-dou. Journal ofSport and Social Issues, 28 (2), 169-192.
Theeboom, M. & De Knop, P. (1997). An analysis of the development of wushu. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 32 (2), 267-282.
Vertonghen, J., & Theeboom, M. (2010). The social-psychological outcomes of martial arts practice among youth: a review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9, 528-537.
Villamon, M., Brown, D., Espartero, J. & Gutiérrez, C. (2004). Reflexive modernization and the disembedding of judo from 1946 to the 2000 Sydney Olympics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 39 (2), 139-156.
Weiser M., Kutz, I., Kutz, S. J., & Weiser, D. (1995). Psychotherapeutic aspects of the martial arts. American Journal Psychotherapy, 49, 118-127.
Woodward, T. W. (2009). A review of the effects of martial arts practice on health. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 108(1), 40
- Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.