Pengaruh Malaria Pada Ibu Hamil Terhadap Defisiensi Makronutrien Pada Balita

Cri Sajjana Prajna Wekadigunawan

Abstract


Abstract

The incidence of Malaria in Indonesia until April 2018 shows a total of 10.7 million people living in medium and high endemic areas of malaria. These areas are the provinces of Papua, West Papua and East Nusa Tenggara. At present, the Indonesian government through the Ministry of Health has stated that it is aggressively undertaking efforts to eliminate malaria in 2030.Women in pregnancy are considered vulnerable to suffer from malaria in these endemic areas. Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and or Plasmodium vivax during pregnancy is 88.2 million (70%) of 125.2 million pregnancies in the world. 54.4 million those pregnancy women came from Malaria endemic areas in Asia Pasific. This paper is a literature review by reporting the results of exploration of articles with keywords: pregnancy, malaria and macronutrients deficiency. Macronutrient deficiency in the presence of maternal malaria infection causes fetal growth and could affect both immune-competence and long-term health. Joint efforts by public health professional with interest in nutrition and parasitologist (Malaria experts) are needed to determine the burden and to find its solution.

 

Keywords: malaria, nutrition, infants

 

Abstrak

Kejadian Penyakit Malaria di Indonesia, hingga April 2018 menunjukkan  sebesar 10,7 juta penduduk yang tinggal di daerah endemis menengah dan tinggi Malaria. Daerah tersebut adalah provinsi Papua, Papua Barat dan Nusa Tenggara Timur. Saat ini pemerintah Indonesia melalui Kementerian Kesehatan (Kemenkes) menyatakan sedang gencar melakukan upaya-upaya eliminasi Malaria pada tahun 2030. Ibu hamil dianggap rentan menderita Malaria di daerah-daerah endemis tersebut. Kejadian Malaria akibat Plasmodium falciparum dan atau Plasmodium vivax selama kehamilan sebanyak 88,2 juta (70%) dari 125.200.000 kehamilan di dunia. 54.4 juta jiwa ibu hamil yang terjangkit berasal dari kawasan endemik Malaria di Asia-Pasifik.Tulisan ini merupakan kajian pustaka dengan melaporkan hasil eksplorasi artikel-artikel dengan kata kunci: pregnancy (kehamilan), Malaria dan deficiency macronutrient (kekurangan makronutrien). Keadaan kekurangan makronutrien dan adanya infeksi maternal malaria menyebabkan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan bayi terhambat, meningkatkan resiko terkena infeksi dan kematian pada bayi dan balita, juga kesehatannya di masa yang akan datang. Perlunya kerjasama ahli-ahli parasitologi dan kesehatan masyarakat dengan spesialisasi nutrisi untuk menentukan besarnya masalah dan merancang solusinya.

 

Kata Kunci:malaria, nutrisi, bayi


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References


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